Calibration and radiocarbon dating
Recent research on seasonal effects on tree rings in other trees in the same genus, the plantation pine , has revealed that up to five rings per year can be produced and extra rings are often indistinguishable, even under the microscope, from annual rings.
This would mean they pre-dated the Flood which occurred around 4,350 years ago, taking a straightforward approach to Biblical chronology.
In succeeding years many further specimens have been found, not only in the German Neander Valley, but in with rickets, caused by a deficiency of vitamin D.
He considered that the flattened head was caused by repeated powerful blows (his examination was done pre Darwinism 1859).
He was considered to be the brutish ancestor link to man in the evolution chain, the intermediate stage between man and ape.
near Dusseldorf, Germany uncovered a skull and bones.